Springfield Township is located within four major watersheds and at the headwaters of three major river systems:
- Clinton River Watershed: The main branch of the Clinton River begins in northeast Springfield Township and drains southeast before emptying into Lake St. Clair.
- Huron River Watershed: The Huron River begins near Big Lake at the intersections of Scott and Big Lake roads in south central Springfield Township. From there it drains south through Ann Arbor before it outlets into Lake Erie.
- Shiawassee River Watershed:The Shiawassee River also begins near the intersections of Scott and Big Lake roads, at Shiawassee Lake. From here it flows north, then west, then north again before joining several other rivers and draining into Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron.
- Flint River Watershed: Several areas located at the northern border of Springfield Township are located in the uppermost reaches of the Flint River Watershed, which drains north and also empties into Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron.
Great Huron Swamp
Long Lake Natural Area
These include Bridge Valley (Clinton River Headwaters), the Great Huron Swamp (Huron River Headwaters) and the Long Lake Natural Area, shown on the Springfield Township Watersheds Map.
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